Inside the Black Box of Professional Development Spending

Lessons from Comparing Five Urban Districts

Karen Hawley Miles, A. Odden, M. Fermanich, S. Archibald, and A. Gallagher Journal of Education Finance, 2004

Standards-based reform has entered a new phase that puts professional development of teachers at the center of the discussion. Research tells us that intensive, high-quality professional development likely will be part of any effective strategy to improve schools. But, because professional development is labor intensive, it can be costly. And it can be politically difficult to justify investments outside the classroom especially for districts that are not delivering inspiring student performance results. Learn more in his paper how districts can find and justify the resources they will need to improve school performance dramatically.

Inside the Black Box of School District Spending on Professional Development (PDF)